Drinking Water Analysis

Need of Drinking Water AnalysisWater Pollution

We have around 60% water in our body. i.e 2/3 rd part of human body made up of water. what if the water we are drinking is contaminated? Over 3 million people die (majorly because of Diarrhea) every year because of water pollution. To make sure that water we are drinking is pure and contains no bacteria and harmful metals Drinking water analysis is necessary. We have heard Precaution is better than cure since our childhood it is true in this case also.

Location of Drinking water Sampling Points

Drinking water Sampling is most important process in Drinking water analysis. it must be taken from location that is representative of water source to be tested.

Sampling Frequency

The Most important test in water quality surveillance are those for microbiological quality i.e. indicator of bacteria, Turbidity, Free chlorine, pH. These should be carried out whenever a sample is taken. It is recommended that Drinking water analysis to be carried out once in a year.

Storage of Samples

Although recommendation varies, the time between sample collection & analysis should, in general not exceed 6 hours & 24 Hours is considered the absolute Maximum. It is assumed that the samples are immediately placed in a light proof insulated box containing melting ice or ice packs with rapid cooling. If ice is not available, the transportation time must not exceed 2 hours before drinking water analysis.

Sampling methods for physio-chemical analysis

Result of physio-chemical analysis is of no value if the sample tested are not properly collected & stored. In generaDrinking Water Analysisl, Time between sampling & analysis should be kept to a minimum. Storage in a glass or polyethylene bottles at low temperature (e.g. 4 DegC) in the dark is recommended. pH, Turbidity & Residual chlorine should be tested immediately after sampling as they will chance during storage & transportation.

Physico-Chemical Analysis

Chlorine residual

The disinfection of drinking-water supplies constitutes an important barrier against waterborne diseases. Although various disinfectants may be used, chlorine in one form or another is the principal disinfecting agent employed in small communities in most countries. Three types of chlorine residual may be measured: free chlorine (the most reactive species, i.e. hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion); combined chlorine (less reactive but more persistent species formed by the reaction of free chlorine species with organic material and ammonia); and total chlorine (the sum of the free and combined chlorine residuals).


Portable pH electrodes and meters are available. If these are used in the laboratory, they must be calibrated against fresh pH standards at least daily; for field use, they should be calibrated immediately before each test. Results may be inaccurate if the water has a low buffering capacity and it will not serve the purpose of drinking water analysys.


In all processes in which disinfection is used, the turbidity must always be low—preferably below 1 NTU. It is recommended that, for water to be disinfected, the turbidity should be consistently less than 5 NTU.


If Drinking water is colored then may be colored organic matter, e.g. humic substances, metals such as iron and manganese, or highly colored industrial wastes are present. Drinking-water should be colorless.

Taste and odor

Odors in water are caused mainly by the presence of organic substances. Some odors are indicative of increased biological activity, others may result from industrial pollution. Generally, the taste buds in the oral cavity detect the inorganic compounds of metals such as magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, iron, and zinc. As water should be free of objectionable taste and odor, it should not be offensive to the majority of the consumers.

Drinking Water Parameters and Standards

Water is a vital natural resource which is essential for multiplicity of purpose. Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water. Drinking water or potable water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry meets drinking water quality standards, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Typical uses (for other than potable purposes) include toilet flushing, washing and landscape irrigation.
As Per Indian Standard Specifications For Drinking Water Quality standards:




desirable Limit

1 Color 5 May be extended up to 50 if toxic substances are suspected
2 Turbidity 10 May be relaxed up to 25 in the absence of alternate
3 pH 6.5 to 8.5 May be relaxed up to 9.2 in the absence
4 Total Hardness 300 May be extended up to 600
5 Calcium as Ca 75 May be extended up to 200
6 Magnesium as Mg 30 May be extended up to 100
7 Copper as Cu 0.05 May be relaxed up to 1.5
8 Iron 0.3 May be extended up to 1
9 Manganese 0.1 May be extended up to 0.5
10 Chlorides 250 May be extended up to 1000
11 Sulphates 150 May be extended up to 400
12 Nitrates 45 No relaxation
13 Fluoride 0.6 to 1.2 If the limit is below 0.6 water should be rejected, Max. Limit is extended to 1.5
14 Phenols 0.001 May be relaxed up to 0.002
15 Mercury 0.001 No relaxation
16 Cadmium 0.01 No relaxation
17 Selenium 0.01 No relaxation
18 Arsenic 0.05 No relaxation
19 Cyanide 0.05 No relaxation
20 Lead 0.1 No relaxation
21 Zinc 5.0 May be extended up to 10.0
22 Chromium as Cr +6 0.05 No relaxation

Why us – Perfect Pollucon Services as Environmental Consultant

We Perfect Pollucon Services as Environmental Consultant have highly Qualified and Experienced Experts to do Drinking water Analysis. We already provide these services to major industries to small Villages.

If you want to avail our services or to know more about our services please fill contact form mentioned on right hand side.

 Also read how to carry out Air Quality Monitoring and Ambient Air quality Standards by Pollution Control Board.

Learn more about Noise level Survey and Limits by Pollution control boards

Perfect Pollucon Services