Ambient Air Quality monitoring or Testing is a process of measurement of pollutants present in the atmosphere. It measures the healthiness and safety of our environment.
What is Ambient Air Quality?
Ambient air quality is defined as the quality of air outside and sometimes inside. Ambient air quality standards are limits to concentrations of pollutants in air stated for well being of human, nature, animals, etc. There is no single specified definition of standards resulting, Various organizations use standards which are not often similar. Ambient air quality monitoring is also called as Outdoor Air Quality Testing.
What is Air Quality Monitoring?
Air quality monitoring is the process of assessment of pollutants present in the atmosphere by their quantity and types as per air quality standards. Air quality monitoring helps us to take action based on pollutants present in atmosphere to improve air quality
Why Ambient Air Quality Monitoring or Testing Required?
Air Pollution is the introduction of Chemicals, Particulates or other Harmful materials into atmosphere causes/damage to living organism/Built Organism. Air pollutants are added in the atmosphere from a variety of sources that change the composition of the atmosphere and affect the biotic environment. The concentration of air pollutants depends not only on the quantities that are emitted from air pollution sources but also on the ability of the atmosphere to either absorb or disperse these emissions. The sources of air pollutants include vehicles, industries, domestic sources and natural sources. Because of the presence of a high amount of air pollutants in the ambient air, the health of the population an
property is getting adversely affected. In order to arrest the deterioration in air quality, Govt. of India has enacted the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act in 1981. The responsibility has been further emphasized under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Therefore, the Central Pollution Control Board had started National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) Network during 1984 – 85 at the national level. The program was later renamed as National Air Quality Monitoring Program (NAMP).
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring & Testing Methodology
Ambient air quality monitoring & testing is required to determine the existing quality of air, evaluation of the effectiveness of the control program. National Air Quality Monitoring Program is described in this chapter along with details on pollutants measured and their frequency. Similarly, Guidelines for monitoring are made for carrying out AAQM under NAMP and description of the program is essential as the monitoring is carried out to meet the objectives of NAMP.
Various types of equipment are used to find the amount of Air pollution done by a particular source called ‘’Air Monitoring Equipment.’’ Evaluation of Ambient Air for determination of community air Quality as related to local health, Social & Environmental Effects. Determination of suspended particulate matter as small as one-micron size & any four gaseous contaminants at a time.
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring or Testing Parameters
Under N.A.M.P., 12 air pollutants viz., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 and Particulate Matter (PM10) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Lead (Pb), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Ammonia (Nh3), Benzene (C6H6), Benzo-Pyrene (BaP), Arsenic (As), Nikhel (Ni) have been identified for regular monitoring at required the locations/ Industrial unit.
Among all these parameters Particulate matter is the most important pollutant present in the atmosphere. It is also called as Particulate matter Monitoring or Dust Monitoring.
As per CPCB Notification under National ambient air quality testing standards (NAAQS). These Results can be converted into the non-Technical way so that everybody can understand the level of pollution. it is called as Air Quality Index (AQI).
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring or Testing Standards
Below mentioned are National Ambient or Outdoor air quality standards (NAAQS Standards) which are used in ambient air testing.
|Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)||mg/M3||≤ 80|
|Oxides of Nitrogen||mg/M3||≤ 80|
|Particulate Matter PM10||mg/M3||≤ 100|
|Particulate Matter PM2.5||mg/M3||≤ 60|
|Ozone (O3)||mg/M3||≤ 180|
|Lead (Pb)||mg/M3||≤ 1.0|
|Carbon Monoxide (CO)||mg/M3||≤ 04|
|Ammonia (NH3)||mg/M3||≤ 400|
|Benzene (C6H6)||mg/M3||≤ 05|
|Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP)||mg/M3||≤ 01|
|Arsenic (As)||mg/M3||≤ 06|
|Nickel (Ni)||mg/M3||≤ 20|
Ambient Air Quality Testing Procedure – Duration and Frequency
The period and frequency of ambient or outdoor air quality sampling procedure should be such that statistically reliable averages can be obtained with the data i.e. 8 Hrs or 24 Hrs. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) states that it should be 8 Hrs monitoring or 24 Hrs as per requirement. Particulate matter levels are lower during the monsoon months due to removal by wet deposition. Air pollutants such as CO levels are higher during winter months due to lower mixing heights resulting in less volume of troposphere available for mixing and hence higher concentrations. Thus measurements should be conducted in all the seasons so that in annual average all the seasons are represented equally. In general, a minimum of 20% of the reading should be taken in each season.
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Equipment
There are many types of instruments available to monitor ambient air quality such as Respirable dust samplers, High volume air samplers, Handy dust samplers, Combined dust samplers, Portable air quality analyzers, etc. Below are the few Ambient Air Quality Monitoring instruments commonly used in the industry
High Volume Air Sampler
High Volume Air Sampler consists of the filter holding assembly, High capacity blower, U-tube Manometer, Rotameter, impingers housed in detachable fibre case, inlet filters, voltage stabilizer & Timer.
Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station
Continuous air quality testing station or ambient air quality monitoring station constantly samples and test ambient air and provide instant reading to the nearest monitoring center. Recently the Indian government has installed more than 50 continuous air quality monitoring stations in Metro cities of India.
Ambient Air Monitoring & Testing Services Company
We offer Ambient air monitoring & Testing Services in India. Our Company is completely adept in offering customized ambient air monitoring services as per clients requirements. All this was possible because, We have highly qualified and experienced professionals who are capable of monitoring the air for toxin level, pollution degree etc.
Special features of Perfect Pollucon Services are:
- Customized service offered
- Excellent monitoring
- Specialized services
- Efficient professional team
- Timely Service
Also, we have periodically calibrated instruments as per Pollution control board guidelines. As Environmental Consultants We offer services in Soil Analysis, Water Analysis, Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality Monitoring, Ambient Noise level Monitoring and Stack Emission Monitoring.
As per CPCB parameters of air quality monitoring are Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5), NO2, CO, O3, SO2, NH3, Pb, As, Ni, Benzopyrene and Benzene. Mostly parameters like PM, SO2, CO, CO2, O3 and NH3 are reported.
The process of Air quality measuring is combining multiple pollutants levels present in the atmosphere and then combining their reading with their weightage assigned by pollution control boards. This gives information on air quality to the public whether air quality is either good, moderate, or hazardous.
As per CPCB notification, the fourth version of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) is used for ambient air quality monitoring.
Ambient air quality monitoring is the process of collecting, measuring ambient air pollutants to evaluate the current status of the environment, and comparing them to standards declared by government agencies.
There are many types of ambient air quality monitoring such as high volume sampler, handheld devices, passive monitoring, continuous monitoring, active sampling using silica gel etc. Then to make understand these results for common people it is converted into Air Quality Index i.e., scoring system.
a. It helps us assess impacts caused by poor air quality on public health
b. It helps us to understand if air quality is within standards or not
c. To Identify polluted areas, level of pollution
d. The efficiency of industries in high polluted areas
e. Assess health issues on people due to pollution
f. To design control measures for better health of livings
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