Stack Emission Monitoring & Testing
Stack Emission monitoring is referred to as Stack emission testing, stack emission monitoring, stack sampling, Source Emission Monitoring or Source Testing. It is a process to measure the emission of industrial waste or pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. The pollutants emitted from the stack can be solid, gaseous, liquid organic or inorganic.
What is Stack?
The stack is nothing but chimney which is used to disperse the hot air at a great height, emissions & particulate matters that are emitted from the various types of stacks like boiler, flue gas etc. At these heights, the polluted air disperses in a very large area so that concentrations at the ground are within permissible limits and not harmful for humans, animals and vegetation.
There are several types of flue-gas stack based on fuel injections. Eg. DG set stack, flue gas stack, process stack, furnace stack, boiler stack, chimney etc.
CPCB guidelines for Stack Height
Chimney, Boiler, DG set, DG exhaust pipe etc. Stack height calculation plays an important role in determination of dispersion of pollutants in upper level of air relevant to local building height.
Chimney / Boiler/ Stack Height Calculation Formula
H = h + 0.2 * √KVA
H = Total height of stack in metre
h = Height of the building in metres where the generator set is installed
KVA = Total generator capacity of the set in KVA
Based on the above formula stack height to be provided can be categorized as follow: This is inline with CPCB guidelines for stack height.
|For Generator Sets
|Total Height of stack in metre
|Ht. of the building + 1.5 metre
|Ht. of the building + 2.0 metre
|Ht. of the building + 2.5 metre
|Ht. of the building + 3.0 metre
|Ht. of the building + 3.5 metre
|Ht. of the building + 3.5 metre
Stack Emission Monitoring & Testing by Perfect Pollucon Services (Marathi)
This video explains why stack Emission testing or Source Emission Testing is important and how to carry out Industrial Stack Monitoring process.
What are the Requirements of Stack Emission Monitoring & Testing?
Perfect Pollucon Services is a stack emission testing company having more than 30 years of experienced experts. They know how to carry out these tasks in an efficient manner.
• To determine the quality and quantity of air pollutants emitted by the source
• To measure the effectiveness of pollutants controller equipment before and after installation
• To measure the effectiveness of pollutants controller equipment for a given condition
• To compare results with emission standards to take required action
• To compare changes in emission with the changes in processes or raw materials
Stack Monitoring Kit or Equipment
• Stack Monitoring kit used to find gaseous pollutants in emission from a stationary source such as Boiler Chimney, Process outlets, Scrubber outlets Etc by stack emission testing companies.
• It also can be used to determine physical parameters such as exit emission velocity from stack, temperature & flow of Air emission.
• Determination of total particulate matter using isokinetic Sampling Technique.
• Analysis of gaseous contaminants like SO2, SO3, NOx, Cl2, HCL, NH3 etc by using a gas monitoring system.
Stack emission monitoring Equipment is divided into Four Parts
Velocity Measuring Kit
Consist of the inclined manometer, Digital Temperature Indicator, ‘S’ type Pitot tube & thermocouple.
Particulate Sampling Train
Thimble Holder & set of nozzles, condenser, Rotameter, Dry Gas Meter, Time indicator & power source for synchronizing vacuum pump with sampling train.
Multigas Sampling Train
Consists of four glass impingers housed in FRP casing with Rotameter for gaseous sampling.
Diaphragm type vacuum pump of suitable capacity.
Stack Emission Monitoring & Testing Procedure
Measurements of these pollutants follow specific predefined stack emission testing procedures and protocols to ensure accurate and representative data of the total amount of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere from a given source in the given time is collected.
Learn more about Stack Emission monitoring Methods
It is the most Important that sample collected must truly represent the conditions of flue gas stack. Accurate measurement of Pressure, moisture, humidity, gases, velocity, temperature and Particulate matter is required during Industrial stack monitoring procedure.
It is also required to measure accurately rate of flow gases accurate of weight and volume of samples collected.
Also When a wide range of particles are present in emission flow, there is a possibility that only smaller particles can enter into sampler inlet and larger particles may not enter due to their inertia. So to avoid this situation Calculating isokinetic ratio i.e. Isokinetic Stack Sampling method can be helpful to achieve accurate results in gas boiler emission monitoring.
IsoKinetic Stack Sampling
Read More about how to select traverse Point or Iso-kinetic Stack Sampling in Stack Monitoring.
Stack Emission Measurement Parameters
Collected Sample then tested and analysed in a laboratory for Parameters (Stack Emission Monitoring Parameters) NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO2 (sulphur dioxide), VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) etc.
Stack Emission Testing Frequency
The frequency for stack monitoring is always directed in Consent to operate for depending on their industry type and plant capacity. Larger plants will have to monitor stack more frequently than small plants. For each industry, there is different frequencies are defined on CPCB website depending on their consent categories. They have covered industries like cement, thermal power, integrated iron and steel, fertilizer, Nitric acid, Sulphuric acid, Primary aluminium, Carbon black, Calcium carbide and Oil Refinery, etc.
What is The Limit of PM Emission For Stack Monitoring?
As per CPCB or Indian standards for Industrial Stack Monitoring the flue gas emission from boiler stack, DG set emissions, the furnace should not exceed the limit for Particulate matter beyond 150 mg/Nm3. However, this limit can vary depending on the industry type.
Read more about Fugitive Emission Monitoring and Testing
Stack Monitoring Parameters and Standards / Limits as per CPCB for Boiler & DG Sets Emission
Please refer below table of Stack Monitoring Parameters and Standards / Limits as per CPCB for Boiler & DG Sets Emission:
|Stack Monitoring Parameters for Boilers and DG Sets
Stack Monitoring Limits / Standards As per CPCB (in mg/Nm3)
|Particulate Matter (PM)
|Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
|Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
|Total Fluoride (F)
|Hydrochloric Acid Vapor & Mist (HCl)
|Sulphuric Acid Mist (H2SO4)
|Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Recently, in Stack Emission Monitoring below mentioned two technologies introduced to measure online stack emission:
Piezoelectric Monitor – Industrial Stack Monitoring Equipment
In this equipment, particles are electrostatically deposited on to a piezoelectric sensor by stack emission testing companies.
Beta Attenuation Monitor – Industrial Stack Monitoring Equipment
In this equipment, the particulate sample is filtered using a continuous filter tape and the mass of particulates filtered out is determined by measuring its radiations.
Stack Emission Monitoring & Testing Services by our Company
Perfect Pollucon Services offer Stack emission testing and Source Emission monitoring services to keep a check on industrial waste stream that is released into the atmosphere.
Every industry or manufacturing company has to notify their stack emission levels to the pollution control board. We carry out various tests to determine pollutants concentrations, emission rate or parameter in the Gas Boiler emission monitoring process. We offer to test for benzene testing, toluene testing, heavy metal testing in air, VOC emission monitoring and VOC Testing and analysis.
We offer Environmental Services.
Frequently Asked Questions:
Stack monitoring system used for detecting and measuring of harmful gases released into atmosphere from stack, chimneys, DG stacks, etc. Process involves sampling of gases from stack and monitor in real time to keep an eye on volume of gas emissions.
Stack Emission monitoring procedure includes tasks of Measurement, testing, sampling and analysis. Onsite determination of physical parameters of flue gases such as temperature, flow and pressure also involved in Stack emission monitoring.
Stack Monitoring is the process of testing the harmful gases emitted from stacks to keep a check on the pollutants released in the air. The top pollutants that stacks emit are Carbon Monoxide(CO), Oxides of Sulphur (SO2,SO3),Methane Gas, and oxides of Nitrogen i.e. SOx and NOx, and hydrocarbon compounds
Stack emission is basically gases released into the air from boiler stack, chimneys or DG set stack etc. from various industries after incineration process i.e. method to remove or burn the harmful gases before releasing to environment.
Stacks are large chimneys designed to emit and disperse hot air, particulate matter, and pollutants from industries into the upper atmosphere so that they do not create a danger to life on the ground. There are several types of stacks in use today, such as: Boiler stacks. Flue gas stacks, etc.
There are many types of devices used in Stack emissions based on the objective. Most commonly used devices are:
1) Iso-Kinetic Sampling: Manual and Automatic
2) Pollutant Specific: PM 2.5 and PM10, Sulfuric acid, Dioxin Furan, Halogens and Halides etc. measurement instrument
3) Specific Gas Sampling Instruments: NOx, SO2, VOC, Flue Gas Analyzers, Electrochemical Sensor based analyzers, etc.
4) Metal Emission Sampling Instruments
5) Specific Parameters: Pressure, Flow, Temperature, Velocity, Relative Humidity measurement instruments
Stack monitoring is vital for assessing and controlling industrial air emissions, providing accurate data on the type and quantity of pollutants released into the atmosphere from industrial stacks.
This information is crucial for regulatory compliance, environmental impact assessments, and the development of effective pollution control strategies, contributing to the protection of air quality and public health.
Stack monitoring involves the measurement of various parameters to assess industrial emissions accurately. Key parameters include pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the environmental impact of industrial activities and facilitating regulatory compliance.
A stack monitoring kit is a comprehensive set of tools and equipment designed for the systematic collection and analysis of emissions from industrial stacks.
Typically including gas analyzers, particulate samplers, and data loggers, these kits enable environmental professionals to conduct accurate and efficient stack monitoring, ensuring compliance with emission regulations and facilitating the development of effective pollution control measures.
Stack monitoring is typically performed by installing sampling equipment on or near industrial stacks to collect samples of emitted gases and particulate matter.
These samples are then analyzed using various techniques, such as gas analyzers and particulate samplers, to measure the concentrations of specific pollutants and ensure compliance with environmental regulations.
DG stack height is typically calculated using dispersion modeling, considering factors such as emission rates, atmospheric conditions, and surrounding structures.
Mathematical models like ISCST3 may be employed, and compliance with local environmental regulations is essential for accurate calculations.
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Perfect Pollucon Services is one of the leading Stack testing Company.